The study controlled for endogenous motivations of seat belt use, which it is claimed creates an artificial correlation between seat belt use and fatalities, leading to the conclusion that seatbelts cause fatalities. Don't Have an Account? Shelden made a major contribution to the automotive industry with his idea of retractable seat belts. Seat belts in school buses. Retrieved from "Archived copy" PDF.
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Description Add any of our fabulous accessories to your favorite style to make your performance unique. You May Also Like. Don't Have an Account? Become a customer to gain access to our exclusive dance teacher only pricing and to receive a catalog. Required Documentation Please fill out this form and upload or email the required documents to express interest in becoming a customer of Curtain Call Costumes. In order to process your information, we will need the following proof of business: If you have any questions please contact our Customer Service department at However, the first car model to feature the three-point seat belt as a standard item was the Volvo , first outfitted with a two-point belt at initial delivery in , replaced with the three-point seat belt the following year.
The BIS is a three-point harness with the shoulder belt attached to the seat itself, rather than to the vehicle structure. The first car using this system was the Range Rover Classic. Fitment was standard on the front seats from A General Motors assessment concluded seat-mounted three-point belts offer better protection especially to smaller vehicle occupants,  though GM did not find a safety performance improvement in vehicles with seat-mounted belts versus belts mounted to the vehicle body.
BIS type belts have been used by automakers in convertibles and pillarless hardtops, where there is no "B" pillar to affix the upper mount of the belt. Chrysler and Cadillac are well known for using this design. Antique auto enthusiasts sometimes replace original seats in their cars with BIS-equipped front seats, providing a measure of safety not available when these cars were new. However, modern BIS systems typically use electronics that must be installed and connected with the seats and the vehicle's electrical system in order to function properly.
Five-point harnesses are typically found in child safety seats and in racing cars. The lap portion is connected to a belt between the legs and there are two shoulder belts, making a total of five points of attachment to the seat. A 4-point harness is similar, but without the strap between the legs, while a 6-point harness has two belts between the legs. In NASCAR , the 6-point harness became popular after the death of Dale Earnhardt , who was wearing a five-point harness when he suffered his fatal crash; as it was first thought that his belt had broken, and broke his neck at impact, some teams ordered a six-point harness in response.
Aerobatic aircraft frequently use a combination harness consisting of a five-point harness with a redundant lap-belt attached to a different part of the aircraft. While providing redundancy for negative-g manoeuvres which lift the pilot out of the seat ; they also require the pilot to un-latch two harnesses if it is necessary to parachute from a failed aircraft.
The purpose of locking retractors is to provide the seated occupant the convenience of some free movement of the upper torso within the compartment, while providing a method of limiting this movement in the event of a crash. Most modern seat belts are stowed on spring-loaded reels called "retractors" equipped with inertial locking mechanisms that stop the belt from extending off the reel during severe deceleration.
There are two main types of inertial seat belt lock. A webbing-sensitive lock is based on a centrifugal clutch activated by rapid acceleration of the strap webbing from the reel. The belt can be pulled from the reel only slowly and gradually, as when the occupant extends the belt to fasten it. A sudden rapid pull of the belt—as in a sudden braking or collision event—causes the reel to lock, restraining the occupant in position. A vehicle-sensitive lock is based on a pendulum swung away from its plumb position by rapid deceleration or rollover of the vehicle.
In the absence of rapid deceleration or rollover, the reel is unlocked and the belt strap may be pulled from the reel against the spring tension of the reel. The vehicle occupant can move around with relative freedom while the spring tension of the reel keeps the belt taut against the occupant. When the pendulum swings away from its normal plumb position due to sudden deceleration or rollover, a pawl is engaged, the reel locks and the strap restrains the belted occupant in position.
Dual-sensing locking retractors use both vehicle G-loading and webbing payout rate to initiate the locking mechanism.
Seatbelts in many newer vehicles are also equipped with "pretensioners" or "web clamps", or both. Pretensioners preemptively tighten the belt to prevent the occupant from jerking forward in a crash. Mercedes-Benz first introduced pretensioners on the S-Class. In the event of a crash, a pretensioner will tighten the belt almost instantaneously.
This reduces the motion of the occupant in a violent crash. Like airbags, pretensioners are triggered by sensors in the car's body, and many pretensioners have used explosively expanding gas to drive a piston that retracts the belt. Pretensioners also lower the risk of "submarining", which occurs when a passenger slides forward under a loosely fitted seat belt.
Some systems also pre-emptively tighten the belt during fast accelerations and strong decelerations, even if no crash has happened. This has the advantage that it may help prevent the driver from sliding out of position during violent evasive maneuvers, which could cause loss of control of the vehicle. These pre-emptive safety systems may prevent some collisions from happening, as well as reducing injury in the event an actual collision occurs.
Webclamps clamp the webbing in the event of an accident, and limit the distance the webbing can spool out caused by the unused webbing tightening on the central drum of the mechanism. These belts also often incorporate an energy management loop "rip stitching" in which a section of the webbing is looped and stitched with a special stitching. The function of this is to "rip" at a predetermined load, which reduces the maximum force transmitted through the belt to the occupant during a violent collision, reducing injuries to the occupant.
A study demonstrated that standard automotive three-point restraints fitted with pyrotechnic or electric pretensioners were not able to eliminate all interior passenger compartment head strikes in rollover test conditions. When a crash occurs the bladder inflates with a gas to increase the area of the restraint contacting the occupant and also shortening the length of the restraint to tighten the belt around the occupant, improving the protection.
The system supports the head during the crash better than a web only belt. It also provides side impact protection. In , Ford began offering rear seat inflatable seat belts on a limited set of models, such as the Explorer and Flex. In , Volkswagen announced they had a functional passive seat belt. Automatic seat belts received a boost in the United States in when Brock Adams , United States Secretary of Transportation in the Carter Administration , mandated that by every new car should have either airbags or automatic seat belts.
A study released in by the United States Department of Transportation claimed that cars with automatic seat belts had a fatality rate of. In , Drew Lewis , the first Transportation Secretary of the Reagan Administration , influenced by studies done by the auto industry,  dropped the mandate;  the decision was overruled in a federal appeals court the following year,  and then by the Supreme Court.
When driver side airbags became mandatory on all passenger vehicles in model year , most manufacturers stopped equipping cars with automatic seat belts.
Automatic belt systems generally offer inferior occupant crash protection. In such a scenario, the occupant may be thrown from the vehicle and suffer greater injury or death. Because many automatic belt system designs compliant with the US passive-restraint mandate did not meet the safety performance requirements of Canada —which were not weakened to accommodate automatic belts—vehicle models which had been eligible for easy importation in either direction across the US-Canada border when equipped with manual belts became ineligible for importation in either direction once the U.
Two particular models included the Dodge Spirit and Plymouth Acclaim. Automatic belt systems also present several operational disadvantages. Motorists who would normally wear seat belts must still fasten the manual lap belt, thus rendering redundant the automation of the shoulder belt.
Those who do not fasten the lap belt wind up inadequately protected only by the shoulder belt; in a crash without a lap belt such a vehicle occupant is likely to "submarine" be thrown forward under the shoulder belt and be seriously injured. Motorized or door-affixed shoulder belts hinder access to the vehicle, making it difficult to enter and exit—particularly if the occupant is carrying items such as a box or a purse.
Vehicle owners tend to disconnect the motorized or door-affixed shoulder belt to relieve the nuisance of entering and exiting the vehicle, leaving only a lap belt for crash protection.
Also, many automatic seat belt systems are incompatible with child safety seats, or only compatible with special modifications. Starting in and ending in , the United States conducted a research project on seat belt effectiveness on a total of 40, vehicle occupants using car accident reports collected during that time.
A study as part of this program used data taken from 15, tow-away accidents that involved only car models made between and The study also concluded that the effectiveness of the safety belt did not differ with size of car. The NCAP is a government program that evaluates vehicle safety designs and sets standards for foreign and domestic automobile companies.
The agency developed a rating system and requires access to safety test results. Research and development efforts are ongoing to improve the safety performance of vehicle seatbelts. Some experimental designs include:. In as a package , Ford offered lap only seat belts in the rear seats as an option within the Lifeguard safety package. In , Volvo started to install lap belts in the rear seats. In , Volvo upgraded the rear seat belts to a three-point belt. In crashes, unbelted rear passengers increase the risk of belted front seat occupants' death by nearly five times.
As with adult drivers and passengers, the advent of seat belts was accompanied by calls for their use by child occupants, including legislation requiring such use. Generally children using adult seat belts suffer significantly lower injury risk when compared to non-buckled children. The UK extended compulsory seatbelt wearing to child passengers under the age of 14 in There is also research suggesting that children in inappropriate restraints are at significantly increased risk of head injury,  one of the authors of this research has been quoted as claiming that: As a result of such findings, many jurisdictions now advocate or require child passengers to use specially designed child restraints.
Such systems include separate child-sized seats with their own restraints and booster cushions for children using adult restraints. In some jurisdictions children below a certain size are forbidden to travel in front car seats.
In Europe, the US, and some other parts of the world, most modern cars include a seat-belt reminder light for the driver and some also include a reminder for the passenger, when present, activated by a pressure sensor under the passenger seat. Some cars will intermittently flash the reminder light and sound the chime until the driver and sometimes the front passenger, if present fasten their seatbelts. Two specifications define the standard of seat belt reminder: UN Regulation 16, Section 8.
In North America, cars sold since the early s [ vague ] have included an audiovisual reminder system consisting of a tell-tale light on the dashboard and a buzzer or chime reminding the driver and passengers to fasten their belts. Originally, these lights were accompanied by a warning buzzer whenever the transmission was in any position except park [ clarification needed ] if either the driver was not buckled up or, as determined by a pressure sensor in the passenger's seat, if there was a passenger there not buckled up.
Therefore, people who did not wish to buckle up would defeat this system by fastening the seat belts with the seat empty and leaving them that way. This mandate applied to passenger cars built after August , i. The specifications required the system to permit the car to be started only if the belt of an occupied seat were fastened after the occupant sat down, so pre-buckling the belts would not defeat the system.
In , Congress acted to prohibit NHTSA from requiring or permitting a system that prevents a vehicle from starting or operating with an unbelted occupant, or that gives an audible warning of an unfastened belt for more than 8 seconds after the ignition is turned on.
In response to the Congressional action, NHTSA once again amended FMVSS , requiring vehicles to come with a seat belt reminder system that gives an audible signal for 4 to 8 seconds and a warning light for at least 60 seconds after the ignition is turned on if the driver's seat belt is not fastened.
In the mids, an insurance company from Sweden called Folksam worked with Saab and Ford to determine the requirements for the most efficient seat belt reminder. One characteristic of the optimal SBR, according to the research, is that the audible warning becomes increasingly penetrating the longer the seat belt remains unfastened.
Observational studies of car crash morbidity and mortality,    experiments using both crash test dummies and human cadavers indicate that wearing seat belts greatly reduces the risk of death and injury in the majority of car crashes. This has led many countries to adopt mandatory seat belt wearing laws.
It is generally accepted that, in comparing like-for-like accidents, a vehicle occupant not wearing a properly fitted seat belt has a significantly and substantially higher chance of death and serious injury.
One large observation studying using US data showed that the odds ratio of crash death is 0. The effects of seat belt laws are disputed by those who observe that their passage did not reduce road fatalities. There was also concern that instead of legislating for a general protection standard for vehicle occupants, laws that required a particular technical approach would rapidly become dated as motor manufacturers would tool up for a particular standard which could not easily be changed.
For example, in there were competing designs for lap and three-point seat belts, rapidly tilting seats, and airbags being developed. But as countries started to mandate seat belt restraints the global auto industry invested in the tooling and standardized exclusively on seat belts, and ignored other restraint designs such as air bags for several decades .
As of , seat belt laws can be divided into two categories: A primary seat belt law allows an officer to issue a citation for lack of seatbelt use without any other citation, whereas a secondary seat belt law allows an officer to issue a seat belt citation only in the presence of a different violation. New Hampshire lacks both a primary and secondary seat belt law. Some have proposed that the number of deaths was influenced by the development of risk compensation , which says that drivers adjust their behavior in response to the increased sense of personal safety wearing a seat belt provides.
In one trial subjects were asked to drive go-karts around a track under various conditions. It was found that subjects who started driving unbelted drove consistently faster when subsequently belted. According to the analysis used, seatbelts were claimed to have decreased fatalities by 1. The study controlled for endogenous motivations of seat belt use, which it is claimed creates an artificial correlation between seat belt use and fatalities, leading to the conclusion that seatbelts cause fatalities.
For example, drivers in high risk areas are more likely to use seat belts, and are more likely to be in accidents, creating a non-causal correlation between seatbelt use and mortality. After accounting for the endogeneity of seatbelt usage, Cohen and Einav found no evidence that the risk compensation effect makes seatbelt wearing drivers more dangerous, a finding at variance with other research.
Other statistical analyses have included adjustments for factors such as increased traffic, and other factors such as age, and based on these adjustments, a reduction of morbidity and mortality due to seat belt use has been claimed.
Pros    and cons    had been alleged about the use of seatbelts in school buses. School buses which are much bigger in size than the average vehicle allow for the mass transportation of students from place to place. Although school buses are considered safe for mass transit of students this will not guarantee that the students will be injury free if an impact were to occur.
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