Originally of a military style with peaked cap and high collared tunic, by the s boys wore a functional dark blue pattern with shoulder patches identifying the school. Retrieved 7 February
In Colombia, all students are required to wear uniforms in public and private schools. Uniforms in Colombia consist of two sets, one for everyday use and a sports one for physical education. Everyday uniforms for girls generally include a knee-length skirt, a white T-shirt with a vest, and white calf-length socks. For boys, the uniform generally includes dark-coloured long trousers and a short- or long-sleeved shirt.
The shoes for both girls and boys are black lace-up shoes sometimes the shoes may be dark blue or wine-coloured, depending on the uniform colours and the shirts usually have the school's symbol at the left side. The sports uniform includes sweat pants, a collared T-shirt, and white sports shoes. The designs and the colours of the uniforms depend on the school's colours and the principal's preference.
In El Salvador, all students from public schools and private schools are required to wear uniforms. Uniforms vary depending on the school. Xavier Darcos , a former teacher and Minister of Education from to , is an advocate of the reintroduction of uniforms: This removes the visible differences in social status or wealth.
This is an additional factor of integration". Since March , the students of the Boarding School of Excellence Sourdun wear a uniform with the insignia of their establishment. Les lycées de la défense, formerly known as military schools , require their students to wear uniforms. At some universities, the academic dress is becoming popular. There is no tradition of wearing school uniforms in Germany, and today, almost all students of state schools, private schools or universities do not wear school uniforms.
However, certain garments have been common to students in former times:. From the 16th century, students especially of secondary or grammar schools and similar institutions were often subject to regulations that prescribed, for example, modest and not too stylish attire.
In many cases these regulations were part of wider laws concerning the clothing of all citizens of certain social classes. A blue coat became a widespread obligatory status symbol of students of secondary schools; it fell out of use during the latter half of the 18th century.
In more recent times, school uniforms in any real sense did not exist outside of convent schools and private boarding schools. At times, certain fashions became so widespread that they approached uniform status; this is true in particular for so-called student hats Schülermützen that became widespread from the s on and remained somewhat popular until they were banned by the Nazis.
Their wearing was advocated by teachers and the students themselves and occasionally made mandatory, but never on a national or statewide level. Another instance are the sailor suits that became fashionable around the turn of the 19th century. These, too, were not usually a prescribed uniform. The Nazis banned student hats — the last remaining, if voluntary, form of unified student clothing — because they considered them an attribute of class society. They did, however, institute mandatory membership in the uniformed Hitler Youth HJ from until their fall.
HJ uniforms were worn in the HJ training academies and in the Napolas ; students of other schools sometimes wore them to school at their own discretion. In recent times, the introduction of school uniforms has been discussed, but usually the expression "uniform" the word is the same in German is avoided in favour of terms like "school clothing" "Schulkleidung".
School clothing has been introduced in a small number of schools, for example in Hamburg -Sinstorf in , and in Friesenheim and Haag Oberbayern in In these cases the clothes are collections of shirts, sweaters, and the like, catering to contemporary fashion senses. Uniforms in a more traditional sense are almost never proposed in earnest.
The debate on mandatory school uniforms intensified in Germany when two Muslim girls dressed in burkas arrived at a school in Bonn in The girls' actions were interpreted as political action and were subsequently suspended from school. Then-Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries in an interview with the Welt am Sonntag stated that the simple solution to the issue under consideration is mandatory introduction of school uniforms for boys and girls across Germany.
She further argued that school uniforms would help to prevent conflicts arising from religious or political differences. The proposal was met with opposition from the teacher union and opposition political parties. The teacher union argued that school uniforms are not the solution for integration problems nor the issue of fashion obsession.
The leader of the teacher union Heinz-Peter Meidinger also added that the school uniforms have been a controversial issue in Germany over the years. A senior member of the Green Party, Krista Sager, also said that the introduction of school uniforms would be unacceptable state interference in religious matters.
She then proposed that individual schools have to find their own solutions and rejected solutions imposed by government. She further noted that school uniforms are no longer up to date and their imposition would be rejected by the current generation of students.
The Conference of Education Ministers, a body which decides on school policies, also kicked back against school uniforms. They cited historical reasons dating back to WWII with memories of Hitler Youth's uniform still fresh in people's minds. They also concluded that the imposition of school uniforms would be excessive government encroachment on personal liberty of pupils and parents. The Bildungsstreik movement fights against school uniforms due to their belief that it represents some kind of militarism.
All children have to wear school uniforms in Ghana. Pupils in public schools have the same type of school uniform with the school's emblem is imprinted on the left chest. This helps to distinguish pupils of one school from the other. Private schools determine which uniforms their pupils wear. Ghana like most African countries is characterised by low incomes and high levels of poverty. Hence the cost of school uniforms acts as one of the barriers to educational access.
In an effort to achieve universal primary education the government, as part of its educational policy, initiated free school uniform distribution throughout the country in Over 8, school uniforms have been distributed by the government to needy students in the communities from the Tarkwa Nsuaem municipality, one of the mining districts in Ghana, which is severely affected by poverty. This is part of a program instituted in to supply disadvantaged children with school uniforms.
The vast majority of schools in the former British colony adopted uniforms similar to that of British schools, while Catholic schools in Hong Kong usually follow the tradition of Catholic school uniforms. A number of older Christian girls' schools established before WWII, however, retain the heritage of using the Chinese cheongsam as their uniform,  such as St.
Sailor suits are also used as uniforms in some kindergartens for boys and girls, and secondary schools but for girls only, for example the Bishop Hall Jubilee School and New Method College. Uniforms are compulsory in India in both public and private schools. The boys' uniforms are often made of a light-coloured shirt, long trousers usually blue, white or black, and those of the girls are often a shirt and a skirt. At the state level, the secondary schools are required to use a Shalwar Kameez.
This is not compulsory but they do have certain specific dress code. Many schools require students to wear shoes, ties and ID cards, and comb their hair down and keep it clean and short. Long hair is tied in braids. Uniform is one of the most important components of school life and is taken very seriously in India. Some institutions also require the use of a tie, especially the schools run by Christian missionaries, and the Indian government does not prohibit the children to have religious symbols, so the Muslim girls can wear the veil hijab burka and Sikh boys a turban in addition to the uniform.
However, most of the schools, whether public or private, prohibit students to have a ponytail or dyed hair. In Indonesia , school uniforms are mandatory for every student. They can be simply described as below for each stage of education:. Public schools in Indonesia tolerate religious freedoms. For example, Muslim girls may opt to wear long-sleeve shirts, longer skirts, and jilbab to cover their heads. Most schools in Indonesia also have a batik uniform, usually worn on Thursday or Friday.
This kind of uniform consists of a batik short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirt, with long or short trousers for SMA and below-knee or long skirts for females. The motifs and colours of batik depend on the school. These neckties and vests may vary from school to school in colour and sewing pattern, even among public schools. Nowadays, with the increase of private schools in Indonesia, most private schools have their own signature school uniform.
Most consist of shirts with shorts or trousers for males, and skirts for females, only with differences on the colour. Every school has its own standard grooming. Males are not allowed to have long hair. Accessories are also normally prohibited for males, except for watches. Females are usually allowed to use simple accessories such as watches, earrings, and sometimes bracelets.
All students are prohibited from colouring their hair or having tattoos. Most schools pay attention to the shoes that can be worn. Black or white sneakers with white laces are the most common shoes. The school badge is usually put on the right sleeve of a shirt, consist of school's name and location, and some have their own school's logo.
Others prefer to wear the school's logo as a lapel or breast plastic or metal pin. Students' names are usually on the right side of the shirt and embedded by sewing, ironing or as a detachable badge. Some schools usually "SMP" and "SMA" distinguish the grade of their students by stripes on the official neckties issued or an emblem below the school emblem it can be stripes, chevrons or numbers.
Nowadays some schools require the students to wear an Indonesian flag school badge sewn on top of their left pocket. The scouts pramuka uniform is used in many schools in Indonesia at least once a week. It consists of light-brown short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirts, with dark-brown shorts or trousers, and below-knee skirts or longer for females.
The common day to wear the scout uniform usually falls on Wednesday, Friday, or Saturday. The scout uniform has two breast pockets. Above right pocket is the student's name. Male students wear International Scout Organization logo above their name and female students on their lapel. According to former Education Minister Limor Livnat , about 1, Israeli public schools require pupils to wear uniforms.
School uniforms used to be the norm in the state's early days, but have since fallen out of favour. However, in recent years, the number of schools using school uniforms has been increasing once more. Many teachers, parents and students are in favour of returning the school uniform to common use to prevent the deepening of the gap between affluent children and those less well-off.
Nowadays school uniforms are mainly associated with "national religious" schools within the Israeli system of education. In the Haredi or ultra-Orthodox school system, uniforms are compulsory in essentially all girls' schools. In the vast majority of these, the style adopted by the Beit Ya'akov network is used: In cold weather, a Yale-blue sweater may be added.
A small fraction of schools alter the color scheme to pink and burgundy, while otherwise retaining the same overall appearance.
In boys' schools there is usually not an identifiable school uniform, distinct from what is considered acceptable for ordinary street wear.
However, the standards of acceptable street wear for boys and men in Haredi communities are so precise and exacting that in almost all cases all of the boys in a particular school will be dressed identically. In non-Haredi schools today, school uniforms in Israel consist only of a shirt with the school logo.
In the summer, the uniform shirt is a simple T-shirt, while in the winter, the shirts worn are warm or hooded sweaters. Although the shirts are uniform, they usually come in various colours, and allow students to customise and express themselves even while wearing a uniform. The shirts sell for a very small amount of money, so that even the less well-off can acquire them. In Italy, school uniforms are uncommon, partially because child uniforms are associated with the era of Benito Mussolini before World War II when children were placed according to their age into Italian Fascist youth movements and had to wear uniforms inside and outside school.
However, until the early s many high schools required girls to wear black grembiule resembling a doctor smock on top of their clothes: Perhaps this was because at one time high schools were the only public schools to admit both sexes as opposed to junior schools and elementary , and girls may be required to "cover up" not to distract their male counterparts.
Indeed, this policy was highly disputed during the sexual revolution of the s and later abolished. Nowadays, many pre-schools advise parents to dress their children with a grembiulino , i. Some elementary schools advise some kind of grembiule for the younger pupils. Sometimes girls are required to wear a pink or white grembiulino , while boys may be required to wear a short cotton jacket, usually blue or black.
In other cases both boys and girls may be required to wear a more neutral blue grembiule. Some parents send their children to school in a grembiule even if the school does not require it.
Poet and children's writer Gianni Rodari has described adult life as "a school without grembiule and school desk". In the Italian chapter of WWF warned that synthetic grembiuli were harmful to pupils. In July Education Minister Mariastella Gelmini proposed the re-introduction of the compulsory smock in public schools, provoking a debate in the Italian press.
Japan introduced school uniforms in the late 19th century. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. They are also used in some women's colleges. In the majority of elementary schools, students are not required to wear a uniform to school.
Where they are required, many boys wear white shirts, short trousers, and caps. Young boys often dress more formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school year. Girls' uniforms might include a grey pleated skirt and white blouse. Occasionally the sailor outfit is used for girls.
The uniform codes may vary by season to work with the environment and occasion. It is common for boys and girls to wear brightly coloured caps to prevent traffic accidents. It is normal for uniforms to be worn outside of school areas. However, this is going out of fashion and many students are wearing casual dress. The Japanese junior- and senior-high-school uniform traditionally consists of a military style for boys and a sailor outfit for girls.
These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress, themselves modeled on European-style naval uniforms. They consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer or sweater vest with school crest, and tailored trousers often not of the same colour as the blazer or sweater vest for boys and a white blouse, tie, blazer with school crest, and tartan skirt for girls.
Much like the male uniform, the gakuran , the sailor outfit bears a similarity to military-styled naval uniforms. The uniform generally consists of a blouse attached with a sailor-style collar and a pleated skirt.
There are seasonal variations for summer and winter: A ribbon is tied in the front and laced through a loop attached to the blouse. Several variations on the ribbon include neckties , bolo ties , neckerchiefs , and bows. Common colours are navy blue, white, grey, light green and black. Shoes, socks, and other accessories are sometimes included as part of the uniform. The socks are typically navy or white. The shoes are typically brown or black penny loafers. Although not part of the prescribed uniform, alternate forms of legwear such as loose socks , knee-length stockings, or similar are commonly matched by more fashionable girls with their sailor outfits.
Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its students, all schools have a summer version usually consisting of a white dress shirt and dark slacks for boys and a reduced-weight traditional uniform or blouse and tartan skirt with tie for girls and a sports-activity uniform a polyester track suit for year-round use and a T-shirt and shorts for summer activities.
Depending on the discipline level of their school, students may wear seasonal and activity uniforms in the same classroom during the day. Students may attempt to subvert the system of uniforms by wearing them incorrectly or by adding prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges.
Miniskirts have been very popular in Japan, where they became part of school uniforms, and they came to be worn within the Kogal culture. In Lebanon, all private schools require uniforms. Most of the uniforms are made of a skirt, a shirt, and a pull-over for girls, and for boys it's made of trousers, a shirt, and a pull-over. Some public schools there do not require school uniforms.
In Lesotho school uniforms are still compulsory. In Malaysia , school uniforms Malay: Pakaian Seragam Sekolah are compulsory for all students who attend public schools.
Western-style school uniforms were introduced to present-day Malaysia in the late 19th century during the British colonial era. The present design was standardised beginning in January The uniforms at Malaysian public schools are as follows: Students are required to wear white socks and white shoes with the above uniform.
For modesty reasons, most schools require female students who wear the baju kurung to wear a plain-coloured camisole underneath. In addition to these, schools usually have badges which must be sewn or ironed on to the uniform — generally at the left chest. Some schools require students to sew their name tags in addition to the badge.
For upper forms, students generally have to wear a school-specific tie, except those who are wearing the baju kurung. In Malaysia, Muslim girls tend to wear the baju kurung. Most of them start wearing a white tudung Malaysian version of the Muslim headscarf or hijab upon entering secondary school, for religious reasons. Non-Muslim girls tend to wear the pinafore. Some non-Muslim girls wear the baju kurung.
Muslim boys may wear baju melayu at school on Fridays, often with a songkok hat, to be dressed for going to the mosque for prayers at lunchtime.
Girls who choose to wear the pinafore, especially those attending co-ed schools, usually wear shorts under their pinafore to allow for carefree movement as the skirt only covers up to the knee.
Those who wear the baju kurung tend not to wear shorts under their long skirt as their skirt covers their legs. Neckties are often worn by prefects, class monitors, librarians, and other students of rank. Some schools have neckties as standard issue; even then, the neckties are generally reserved for school events and public appearances, and are not part of the everyday school uniform.
The tropical climate makes them uncomfortable. The hairstyle of students is given attention by schools and the Ministry of Education. For boys, there is usually a maximum length allowed, for example, the hair must be a few centimetres above the collar, and no sideburns are allowed.
Violation of boys' hair regulations is often punished with a caning ; some offer the alternative of an enforced haircut at the school. Girls' long hair must be properly tied up, often into a ponytail.
Some schools dictate the colour and type of hair accessories that can be used. Some prohibit even girls from having long hair. Wearing make up in school is prohibited. Schools usually enforce their uniform code thoroughly, with regular checks by teachers and prefects. Students who fail to comply may be warned, given demerit points, publicly punished, sent home from school, or caned. School uniforms in Mauritius are generally compulsory. Mauritius being a former British colony, has been using the system from back then.
The students have to wear uniforms from primary school until higher secondary level. However, there are a few private schools that are based on the French system and do not require the student to wear school uniform. The uniforms have the school's logo and colors. Most Mexican schools have 2 types of uniforms; one for P. Uniforms usually consist of the following but may vary by school:. Traditionally, many New Zealand intermediate and high schools , and state-integrated and private primary schools , have followed the British system of school uniforms,  although it is common in state schools for the boy's uniform to have a jersey and grey short trousers rather than a blazer with tie and long trousers.
This usually consists of a variety of the following apparel: Both sexes wear an 'official' school jersey. Blazers and jackets are of varied colours according to the school - dark or light blue, grey, crimson, scarlet, green or black. Some follow the British practice of having contrasting colours edging the lapels and jacket fronts. Caps have generally been discarded since the s but in many primary schools there is a compulsory broad-brimmed floppy hat, in the school colours, to help prevent sunburn.
Where short trousers are worn, boys are usually required to wear long dark socks, which may require garters to hold them up. During the s and s there was a tendency for the traditional uniform to be replaced by cheaper and more 'modern' options: Intermediate schools usually provide the option of skirts or culottes for girls and sometimes shorts while boys will wear shorts.
Bike shorts or tights are sometimes worn under girls' skirts and dresses. School uniforms are used in Nigeria. The school uniforms are compulsory in most schools in Pakistan.
Both the public and the private schools have mandated uniforms. Boys uniforms are often made of a light-coloured shirt, long trousers usually brown or blue. The girls often wear Shalwar Qameez suit or in some schools shirt and skirt. In some private schools, there are specified days when students can wear civilian clothing, typically in special occasions like a holiday or last day of school.
There is usually no uniform in universities and progressive schools except for uniforms used in P. E classes, and in specific schools such as the University of Santo Tomas. Public school uniforms for primary levels are typically white, short-sleeved, buttoned-up shirts, with long skirts for girls and light brown knee-length trousers for boys. Uniforms for public high schools and private schools vary widely in pattern and colour, but most often are in the official school colours.
Muslim girls in some higher institutions are often required to wear a white hijab versus other colours. Some school uniforms in the Philippines can bare resemblance to Japanese school uniforms. The material for these usually loose uniforms is often light and suited to the country's tropical climate e.
In , the Department of Education ordered that students are no longer required to wear uniforms. This was to allow poorer families to save money for basic needs. School uniforms are not compulsory in Poland and absent from the vast majority of Polish schools.
The idea of school uniforms in Poland did not exist before the early 20th century. In the People's Republic of Poland , uniform ceased to be compulsory in most schools during the s due to economic issues. Since then, there has been made only one effort to reintroduce uniform into Polish schools - by the former minister of education Roman Giertych , in It was then decided that school uniform would not be enforced by the state onto the whole country, but would be a matter decided upon by the principal of each school respectively.
Initially this was meant to permit only a dress code , but this was later modified in to address school uniform. From , all primary schools and middle schools were to enforce compulsory uniform, whilst high schools and other forms of further education were given the choice to decide on their own.
The appearance of school uniform was decided upon locally, which meant that "uniform" in most schools consisted of a jacket or shirt only - selected by the school management purely to avoid breaking regulations the rest of clothing was still up to the students to decide. By mid, compulsory school uniforms were repealed and it remains so to this day.
In the Republic of Ireland , almost all primary and secondary schools require the wearing of a compulsory uniform. These can vary from school to school but for the most part include a trousers for males and a skirt or pinafore for female students a shirt a jumper and a necktie. In recent years many schools offer the option of trousers also for female students.
Some schools require blazers rather than jumpers. Some primary schools now let their pupils wear a school tracksuit rather than a formal uniform. In recent years there has been criticism, including by the Department of Education of the requirement a school uniform jumper must have the school crest or name imprinted onto it and of the practice, where a schools uniform can only be bought from a certain supplier, which can markedly increase the price of a uniform.
As well as rules regarding the wearing of a uniform many schools have regulations regarding hair, footwear, the growth of facial hair for males, the wearing of makeup and the length of school skirts. Since the late 90s students are no longer required to wear uniform during state examinations. During the Soviet period , a standardised "universal" school uniform was worn by all schools. Originally of a military style with peaked cap and high collared tunic, by the s boys wore a functional dark blue pattern with shoulder patches identifying the school.
For formal occasions such as the first day of term, girls wore white lace collars and aprons dating back to the reign of Catherine the Great. During the initial post Soviet period from to , the mandatory uniform policy was abandoned and pupils generally wore casual clothing such as jeans, T-shirts and sweaters.
However, uniforms were reintroduced under a new education law in September Each school can now choose its own uniform. Also, there are many instances in which schools do not enforce the rules on school uniform. As in many other former British colonies, all South African private and public schools have a uniform, and it is compulsory in all public schools and in the vast majority of private schools for children above pre-school level.
However, many of these same schools will have a "number ones" uniform for special occasions which include such items. In cities such as Cape Town, on the other hand, it is more common to see formal apparel required in public and private schools on a daily basis. Many schools across South Africa also provide the choice between a summer and winter uniform, with khaki uniforms and brown shoes being very common in the summer. South African law has not required gender neutrality in school dress codes and a distinction between girls' and boys' uniforms remains.
Boys of all ages are normally required to wear grey or khaki long or short trousers with socks, and the socks are usually long when worn with shorts, as in the illustration right. Until recently, the straw boater was a common accessory in affluent public and private high schools, although these have now become optional in some cases.
Nearly all schools, public or fee paying, have sports' kits uniforms that require bare feet for health reasons, regardless of the season. Almost all South Korean secondary students wear a uniform called " gyobok " Korean: The majority of elementary schools, except some private ones, do not have uniforms; however, the uniform is strictly monitored from the start of middle school and up.
Based on Western-style ones, the South Korean uniform usually consists of a shirt, blazer and tie, with skirts for girls and trousers for boys. More recently, the uniform is often worn by celebrities who target the younger, teen audience to sell entertainment products. The school uniform and school setting is frequently used as a venue for romance. As a result, the uniform has become something akin to an expression of fashion among students.
Name tags that are worn usually have different colors per grade. Oftentimes the writing is in black or white, whereas the background is colored. In Spain the use of school uniforms is not compulsory in the public school at any stage. Their use depends on school councils involving parents. However, it is customary to wear uniforms in private schools, where typically girls wear uniform shirt and jersey skirt and boys wear white shirt and tie and sometimes jacket.
With uniforms also comes a variety of controversies, pros, cons and major legal implications. There are two main empirical findings that are most often cited in the political rhetoric surrounding the uniform debate.
One of these, the case study of the Long Beach Unified School District , is most often cited in support of school uniforms and their effectiveness whereas Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement is the most frequently cited research in opposition to the implementation of school uniform policies.
The case study of the Long Beach Unified School District was the study of the first large, urban school in the United States to implement a uniform policy. In , mandatory school uniforms were implemented for the districts elementary and middle schools as a strategy to address the students' behaviour issues. The study attributed favourable student behavioral changes and a significant drop in school discipline issues  to the mandatory uniform policy.
This case study attributed the following noticeable outcomes to the use of uniforms throughout the district:. Other research found that uniforms were not an effective deterrent to decrease truancy, did not decrease behavior problems, decrease substance use, or increase student achievement.
A study suggested that "instead of directly affecting specific outcomes, uniforms act as a catalyst for change and provide a highly visible opportunity for additional programs" within schools.
In fact, Brunsma et al. Brunsma stated that despite the inconclusiveness of the effects of uniforms, they became more common because "this is an issue of children's rights, of social control, and one related to increasing racial, class and gender inequalities in our schools. As uniforms have become more normalised, there have also been an increasing number of lawsuits brought against school districts. According to David Brunsma, one in four public elementary schools and one in eight public middle and high schools in the USA have policies dictating what a student wears to school.
As of , there are currently 23 states that allow school districts to mandate school uniforms. Although up until this point, The Supreme Court has not ruled on a case involving school uniforms directly, in the decision Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District , the Court ruled that upon entering school, students do not shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech. Internationally, there are differing views of school uniforms.
In the Australian state of Queensland, Ombudsman Fred Albietz ruled in that state schools may not require uniforms. In Scotland, some local councils that have responsibility for delivering state education do not insist on students wearing a uniform as a precondition to attending and taking part in curricular activities. In the Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board lawsuit in , a Louisiana district court ruled in favour of the school board because it did not see how the free speech rights of the students were being violated due to the school board's uniform policy.
Even though the plaintiff appealed the decision, the Fifth Circuit Court also ruled in favour of the school board after implementing a four-step system that is still used today.
Firstly, a school board has to have the right to set up a policy. Secondly, the policy must be determined to support a fundamental interest of the board as a whole. Thirdly, the guidelines cannot have been set for the purpose of censorship. Finally, the limits on student expression cannot be greater than the interest of the board. As long as these four policies are in place, then no constitutional violation can be claimed. In the Forney Independent School District of Forney, Texas in , the school board decided to implement a school uniform policy allowing the students to wear a polo shirt , oxford shirt or blouse in four possible colours, and blue or khaki pants or shirts, a skirt or jumper.
While there was some flexibility with shoes, certain types were prohibited along with any sort of baggy clothes. The parents of the Littlefield family requested that their son be exempt from the policy, but were denied. In response, the Littlefields filed a lawsuit against the school district, under the pretenses that this uniform mandate infringed on their rights as parents to control how they brought up their children and their education.
They even went as far as to cite an infringement on religious freedom, claiming that opting out of the uniforms on the grounds of religion allowed the school to rank the validity of certain religions. Before trial, the District Court dismissed the case, so the family appealed.
Ultimately, the Fifth Circuit Court ruled that the students' rights were not being violated even though the claims presented were valid. They ruled that school rules derived from the education would override the parents' right to control their children's upbringing in this specific situation. As far as the religious freedom violation accusations, the court ruled that the policy did not have a religious goal, and thus did not infringe on religious freedom rights.
In , Liberty High School, a school of the Clark County School District in Henderson, Nevada , implemented a uniform policy of khakis and red, white or blue polo shirts. A junior by the name of Kimberly Jacobs was suspended a total of five times because she wore a religious shirt to school and got cited for uniform violations.
Her family sued the Clark County School District under the claims that her First Amendment rights were being infringed upon and that the uniform policy was causing students to be deprived of due process. The plaintiff's requests were for injunctive relief, the expunging of suspensions from Jacob's school record and awarding of damages.
The injunction was granted to the family meaning that the school could no longer discipline her for breaking the uniform policy. At this ruling, the school district appealed.
The next court ruled on the side of the school district as it determined that the uniform policy was in fact neutral and constitutional, and it dismissed the claims of the plaintiff. In , a Nevada public elementary school of the Washoe County School District decided to add the school's motto, Tomorrow's Leaders embroidered in small letters on the shirt.
In response, Mary and John Frudden, parents of a student sued the school district on the basis of it violating the 1st Amendment. The court ultimately dismissed the case filed by the Fruddens over the uniforms. However, the family appealed, and two years later, a three-judge panel of the 9th U. Circuit Court of Appeals heard the case. The court ruled to reverse the previous decision of dismissing the case, and also questioned the apparent policy for students that were part of a nationally recognised group such as Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts who were able to wear the uniforms in place of the school ones on regular meeting days.
The 9th circuit panel ruled that the school had not provided enough evidence for why it instituted this policy, and that the family was never given a chance to argue. There are several positive and negative social implications of uniforms on both the students wearing them and society as a whole.
One of the criticisms of uniforms is that it imposes standards of masculinity and femininity from a young age. Uniforms are considered a form of discipline that schools use to control student behavior and often promote conventional gendered dress. They are also often required to have their hair cut short. Some critics allege that this uniform is associated with the dress of a professional business man, which, they claim, gives boys at a young age the impression that masculinity is gained through business success.
Skirts are seen by some critics as a symbol of femininity because they restrict movement and force certain ways of sitting and playing. Uniforms often start to increase in popularity around middle school in the United States , when students begin going through puberty. Uniforms can be seen as a way to restrict the sexualization of girls rules on hems of skirts, no shoulders. Uniforms take the focus away from sexuality and focus it on academics in a school setting for girls.
Miniskirts have been very popular in Japan, where they became part of school uniforms, and they came to be worn within the Kogal culture. In some cultures, the topic of school uniforms has sparked a multitude of controversies and debates over the years. In the United States, the implementation of school uniforms began following ten years of research indicating the effectiveness of private schools. Some state-school reformers cited this research to support policies linked to private and Catholic school success.
However, within the Catholic school literature, school uniforms have never been acknowledged as a primary factor in producing a Catholic school effect.
This is based on the assumption that uniforms are the direct cause of behavioral and academic outcome changes. Another area of controversy regarding school uniform and dress code policies revolve around the issue of gender.
Nowadays, more teenagers are more frequently "dressing to articulate, or confound gender identity and sexual orientation ", which brings about "responses from school officials that ranged from indifferences to applause to bans". Instances include the following: Although not all schools in the United States are required to wear school uniforms, the United States is slowly adapting the use of school uniforms.
In some areas uniforms have become essential due to the poverty level that the schools reside in. Stephanie Northen of The Guardian wrote that school uniforms are less controversial in the United Kingdom compared to the United States and are usually not opposed on free speech grounds.
School uniform is a practice which dates to the 16th century in the United Kingdom. It is believed that the Christ's Hospital school in London in was the first school to use a uniform for its students. School Uniforms at Lands' End. FREE Shipping on $50+ Orders. Shop Lands' End School Uniform Store for school uniforms for girls & boys. School uniforms can be bland, give her some flair and send her back to school in style with girls school uniform selections from The Children's Place! My Place Rewards Create An Account Check Point Balance Redeem Rewards Member Benefits.